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11.2 - Declarative clauses

Declarative clauses are introduced by the conjunction ábal. They are used for: 1) reported speech, 2) clauses of cause or purpose, and 3) subject clauses in adposition to an anaphoric pronoun in the matrix clause. The kind of usage is mainly distinguished by semantics.

Reported speech obviously appears with verbs of saying. For it, no special consecutio temporum is required: the verb appears in the same form it would take in an ungoverned clause.

Clauses of cause and purpose appear on their own. They are sometimes cross-referenced by the modal/instrumental clitic in the matrix clause. The exact function of such clauses is determined by the verb form employed: injunctive, optative and the two conditionals encode a purpose; aorist, pluperfect, imperfect and perfect encode a cause.

Subject clauses are cross-referenced by an anaphoric pronoun: usually the distal, but the proximal inanimate is also found. They are generally displaced at the beginning of the clause. This kind of construction is a sort of parallel to the English "The fact that". Example:

[1] ábal taa maram lííncaanii, táttá laal rubáám
DECLAR it chief that me surprise.AORIST.3S
The fact that the chief liked it surprised me (lit. That the chief liked it, that [fact] surprised me)

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