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10.3 - Topicalisation and emphasis

Topicalisation and emphasis are not distinct processes in Anawanda. They both require the advancement of the central element to the first position of the clause, where it replaces the clausal conjunction or the auxiliary.

When topicalization occurs, no auxiliary is ever used, and the clausal conjunction, if present, is displaced between the clitics. In the hyerarchy of clitics, subordinating conjunctions go before the reflexive, coordinating conjunctions before the temporal.

Any element of the clause is eligible for topicalisation, with the obvious exception of auxiliaries, conjunctions and clitics.

When there are multiple noun phrases, the topicalised one is interpreted by default as the subject. If the direct or indirect object are to be topicalized instead, this is signaled by the usage of the emphatic clitic pronoun. Contrast the following examples:

[1] támác muun taamaalà íícaatina
Tamach 3P.DO Tamale
It is Tamach who loved Tamale

[2] támác guun taamaalà íícaatina
Tamach EMPH Tamale
It is Tamach that Tamale loved

The two clauses above are the topicalized version respectively of:

[3] núú muun támác taamaalà íícaatina
and 3P.DO Tamach Tamale
(And) Tamach loved Tamale

[4] núú muun taamaalà támác íícaatina
and 3P.DO Tamale Tamach
(And) Tamale loved Tamach

Note the usage of a conjunction and of the third person definite direct object clitic.

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